SERVICES INFO-BLOG

Surfactant is Not a Dirty Word! coco betaine and more...

Posted on July 10, 2010 at 8:40 PM

http://www.aussiesoapsupplies.com.au/Surfactant-is-Not-a-Dirty-Word-p-19.html

Please pardon the pun! Many people are a little wary of the word "Surfactant" and tend to only associate it with Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS) and all "those bad ingredients". In fact we use and sell SLSA (Sodium Lauryl Sulphoacetate) which is a much milder surfactant than SLS and is used in solid Bubble Bars and Foaming Bath Blends. However, these sorts of surfactants are not derived from natural sources, but the other ingredients you will see explained below ARE derived from Natural, Vegetable sources. We have been asked so often for a more natural alternative to SLS Shampoos, for Liquid Shampoo and Hair Conditioner recipes, and to make the following ingredients available so that you, our customers, can replicate Commerical Shampoos and other foamy products - but with less "bad stuff" in it, and using more natural ingredients.

Morgan, Earthchylde, who has a knack of being able to explain this sticky (or should we say foamy?) subject with such easy to understand clarity has written the following overview. So, make a cup of Coffee (or Chamomile Tea if you think you'll need it!) and have a read, and it will all seem much easier to understand and easy to formulate at home!

Surfactant Basics

The word "surfactant" is an abbreviation of the words SURFace ACTive AgeNT

How do surfactants work?

Well in very much the same way that handmade soaps work. When we are dirty we wash with water. Some dirt particles dissolve easily in water and wash away clean, and other dirt particles, generally those combined with an oil molecule, are insoluble in water and don't rinse away. This is where soap comes in. As a surface active agent it changes the relationship between the oil and water interfaces, allowing them to form a bond. We know from basic soap making that a soap molecule has a hydrophilic (water loving) head and a lipophilic (oil loving) tail. So, in very basic terms the oil loving tail attaches itself to greasy dirt and grime, which is then pulled away by the water loving head when we rinse, leaving the washed surface clean.

Understanding surfactants is a little like being back in biology class when we had to learn the animal kingdom. In the biological world animals are divided into class and then subdivided into species. Likewise surfactants can be divided into four separate classes, each of which can then be divided into their own little sub-classes.

These classes are called Anionics, Nonionics, Cationics and Amphoterics.

Don't run away - it's relatively painless, I promise!

It's not necessary to fully understand these classes in order to use any of the starter formulas, however if you would like to begin to formulate your own shampoos and body washes from scratch, then a basic understanding will help you.

Anionic surfactants are so named because they have a negative charge to their hydrophilic (water loving) head. They are created when compounds such as fatty acids or fatty alcohols are reacted with chemicals such as sodium or potassium hydroxide or sulfuric acid.

Handmade soaps are anionic in nature and are a result of reacting animal or vegetable fats with sodium or potassium hydroxide.

Commercial surfactants such as Sodium Lauryl Sulphate are formed by reacting a fatty alcohol with sulfuric acid, and similarly Sulfonated Castor Oil (commonly known as Turkey Red Oil) is created when castor oil is reacted with sulfuric acid.

In fact Turkey Red Oil was one of the earliest synthetic detergents.

Anionic surfactants have the highest foaming abilities, the highest detergency and cleansing powers and are often thought of as primary surfactants, because they are generally chosen by formulators as the backbone of most foaming cleansers.

It's not important to remember the following names, although having some familiarity with them will allow you to look at ingredient labels and other formulations online with a little more confidence. You'll see the names and know they are there as a primary, anionic surfactant.

Some of the names that you can expect to find in this category are the sulphates, either sodium or ammonium, sulfosuccinates, sarcosines and sarcosinates, isethionates and taurates.

Amphoteric surfactants are so named because they are capable of having either a positive or negative charge, depending on the acidity or alkalinity of the end product. They display cationic (conditioning) characteristics when at a lower pH and anionic (higher cleansing/foaming) characteristics at a higher pH.

Surfactants like Coco Betaine are included in the Amphoteric category, and are regarded as some of the gentlest surfactants available.

This class is often thought of as secondary surfactants, because they have lower foaming and detergency than their anionic counterparts. Because of their gentle nature and adaptability, when combined with anionics they create a milder product than an anionic alone could normally achieve.

Due to the adaptable nature of amphoterics, they can successfully be combined with every other class of surfactant.

As above, memorising the following names isn't important, it will just increase your familiarity with the ingredients found in popular products. Some of the names you can expect to find in this category are the betaines, such as Coco Betaine and Lauryl Betaine, Hydroxysultaines.

Cationic surfactants are so named because they have a positive charge to their hydrophilic head. It is their positive charge that allows them to "deposit" and adhere onto surfaces, giving them desirable qualities in applications such as hair conditioners, fabric softeners and other products where a film forming capability is required. Cationics can be combined with amphoteric and nonionic surfactants, but because they have the opposing charge to anionics those two do not combine well. Cationics surfactants are generally not found in shampoo or cleanser formulations (with the notable exception of 2 in1 formulations), however they make up the backbone of hair conditioner formulas. Remember that emulsifiers are also surfactants.

For label recognition purposes, some of the ingredients that fall into the category of cationic surfactants are Benzalkonium Chloride, Stearalkonium Chloride, Centrimonium Chloride, Trimethyl Ammoniums and Methyl Sulphates.

Nonionic surfactants are so named because they have no charge to the hydrophilic head. Although they are very mild with gentle cleansing properties, they exhibit almost no foaming characteristics and for this reason are rarely used as primary surfactants. For the home formulator the nonionic group represent some of the most versatile and interesting ingredients we have available to us.

Many nonionic surfactants have been ethoxylated, that is reacted with ethylene oxide. The higher the degree of ethoxylation, the more hydrophilic (water loving) the surfactant is.

It is this property that makes products like Polysorbate 20 and sorbitan oleate act as solubilisers and allow the complete dispersal of oil in water formulas. Some nonionics can be used as superfatting agents, as counter irritants, mildness additives, emollients and foam stabilisers. Some nonionics act as all of these and can also double as co-emulsifiers in oil in water emulsions. Because they have no charge, nonionic surfactants are compatible with every other class of surfactant.

Just so you know them next time you see them, some of the ingredients that stand out as belonging to the nonionic group of surfactants are the Polysorbates, any of the ingredients prefixed with the letters PEG, Emulsifying Wax NF as well as many of the other proprietary blends sold as E-wax, Glyceryl Oleate, Glyceryl Stearate, the Ceteareth family, the Oleth family, the Sorbitan family, Polyglycose and Lauryl Glucoside.

Choosing a Surfactant

(As Aussie Soap Supplies send info sheets out with these ingredients the following is a brief overview)

How do you know which surfactant is going to work best in your chosen formula? Each surfactant has its own nuances, advantages and short comings. By knowing how the surfactant will behave, both as a solitary compound and when blended with other surfactants, you will have a better understanding of how they will perform.

The following is by no means an exhaustive list. There are literally thousands of different surfactants that commercial manufacturers have to choose from, each with their own unique properties. This is a small selection of some of the "more natural" surfactants readily available to the home crafter.

These have been chosen for their versatility both in application, performance and appeal to the formulator and end consumer.

Coco Betaine

INCI name: Cocamidopropyl Betaine

Amphoteric

Usage Rate: 6-40%

Vegetable Derived

Derived from coconut, Coco Betaine is one of the most commonly utilised surfactants in the personal care industry. It is considered to be a high foaming surfactant, with what is known as good flash foam. This means it bubbles up really quickly, but the bubbles don't last very long before dissipating. Traditionally this ingredient has only been considered as a co-surfactant. I have often heard it called a "poor cleanser" by cosmetic chemists. I would prefer to call it a "mild cleanser", which makes it an ideal candidate for the primary surfactant in systems where mildness is important (such as baby formulations) OR in formulas where foam is of the most importance and cleansing is a secondary concern (such as bubble baths).

Although considered to be quite mild already, when choosing it as a primary surfactant, I would blend it with a small amount of nonionic surfactant as routine.

For soapmakers, a good comparison can be drawn between the use of Coco Betaine in surfactant systems and the addition of palm oil in handmade soaps. On it's own palm oil is a mild additive, performs as an adequate cleanser with reasonable foaming abilities, however a bar of 100% saponified palm oil would be rather unremarkable. By adding a small amount of other oils, such as castor for a creamier lather, or shea butter for moisture we have a far more pleasing end product. I view Coco Betaine in much the same way. Whilst it can be the backbone to an excellent formulation, I don't think it is well suited to being the solitary surfactant in most formulations.

Unlike surfactants such as SLS, there is little fear or misinformation surrounding it's use, and it appears to be widely accepted by the consumer as a mild, naturally derived surfactant.

Polyglucose

INCI name: Decyl Glucoside

Nonionic

Usage Rate: 4-40%

Vegetable Derived

Polyglycose is considered to be part of a new generation of surfactants. In Europe, where the worlds strictest cosmetic regulations are in place under the EU Cosmetics Directive, the demand for the alkyl polyglucosides increased by 400% in the space of four years. Derived from sugar they are readily bio-degradable, low toxic, extremely mild and perform well in hard water conditions.

Several clinical skin irritancy tests show decyl glucoside to be non irritating. Even at high concentrations with an extended contact period of 24 hours, there was no observable reaction. (1) Polyglucose exhibits all of the mildness traits of nonionics, with the foam of an anionic. It is this unique characteristic that enables it to be utilised as both a primary and co-surfactant in formulations. Many companies with a natural focus to their formulations are now turning to Polyglucose as their primary, and in some cases only, surfactant. It is so mild that it doesn't require blending with any of the mildness additives.

SCI Granules

INCI name: Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate

Anionic

Usage Rate: 5-60%

Vegetable Derived

Derived from coconuts, SCI Granules exhibit all of the rich foam you would associate with an anionic but with the mildness of a nonionic. In terms of irritation and skin compatability, it is one of the gentlest surfactants available. It contributes a rich, creamy foam leaving the skin with a soft, conditioned feel. When used as a primary surfactant in a large percentage the end product will be an opaque white and of quite a thick consistency. When used as a co- surfactant in low amounts it boosts the foam of the formulation without compromising on clarity, whilst adding some thickening ability. Thickness, coupled with the dense foam, makes it an ideal primary surfactant in shaving creams and cream soaps.

Because SCI Granules come in a dehydrated form, they have a higher percent of actives than liquid surfactants. In comparison SCI Granules only contains 15% water, Coco Betaine is around 70% water and Polyglucose approximately 50% water. Although SCI Granules don't need to be blended with any other surfactant for mildness or foaming, its high activity means that only a small amount is needed to boost the behaviour of other surfactants, making it an economical co-surfactant that will contribute a luxurious feel to the final product.

SLSA

INCI name: Sodium Lauryl Sulphoacetate

Anionic

Usage Rate: 5-60%

It is a little of “girls just want to have fun” with this ingredient for me – a bit like a slice of chocolate cake! SLSA is free flowing white powder that is readily soluble in water. Although relatively new to the home crafter, SLSA has been used in the personal care industry for over 30 years. It has the characteristics of anionics in that it produces a high volume, long lasting foam, however it is very mild and non-drying to the skin and is often utilised in syndet bars and other cleansing preparations for individuals with sensitivities to soap. Its use is for bubbles – and makes superb solid bubble bath formulations! You will not see it in a large proportion of commercial products due to its higher cost – SLS is much cheaper, but also a lot less mild.

Other Ingredients you"ll need to look at when making liquid shampoos, bubble baths and foamy formulas!

Although a simple mixture of surfactant and water would create an efficient cleanser, it may not be all that you had hoped it would be. The formula would be very watery and it would be lacking some of the "elegance" that we expect to find in commercial products. By knowing what ingredients to choose, and how they affect the formulation, we can get the most out of creating our own products. There are several key additives that can be incorporated into our formulations.

Polysorbate 20

INCI name: Polysorbate 20

Nonionic

Vegetable Derived

Polysorbate 20 is a nonionic surfactant traditionally used as an oil in water solubiliser to create products like body mists and room sprays. It can be used in surfactant formulations in the same manner, to disperse the scent. It can be surprisingly difficult to get essential and fragrance oils to disperse fully in surfactant formulations, and in those cases Polysorbate 20 can be used in the same manner. It also has the added benefit of acting as a counter- irritant in anionic/amphoteric solutions. The major drawback to Polysorbate 20 is that it doesn’t bring some of the advantages that similar nonionic surfactants do, and it has to be used at a fairly high percent in comparison.

Polysorbate 80

INCI name: Polysorbate 80

Nonionic Surfactant

Vegetable Derived

Polysorbate 80 is an oil in water emulsifier and dispersant. A clear liquid with medium viscosity and oily texture, it has a mild characteristic odour. It is soluble in water, alcohol (including glycerine) and vegetable oils and insoluble in mineral oil.

It can also be used by itself or in conjunction with Polysorbate 20 as an Essential Oil solubiliser in aqueous solutions such as body mists & room sprays, and as a solubiliser in surfactant based systems. When combined with vegetable oils it creates a water dispersible oil which can be used as a blooming bath oil, or as an "Easy Wash" Massage Oil. Usage rate is between 1-50% depending on application. Lower usage rates indicate when Polysorbate 80 is used as a co-solubiliser, and the higher rates when it is being used as a dispersant.

Glyceryl Cocoate

INCI name: Peg 7 Glyceryl Cocoate

Nonionic Surfactant

Vegetable Derived

Glyceryl Cocoate is a nonionic surfactant derived from coconut that is used as an emulsifier and mildness additive. It behaves in a very similar manner to Polysorbate 80 but with a lot of added benefits. It is well suited for use in blooming bath oil applications, or for solubilising vegetable oils into surfactant systems.

As a stand alone surfactant it has a very low foam but exceptional mildness. In lab tests dermal application at a 50% concentration did not produce any irritation, and when injected under the skin at 10% it did not produce sensitisation, or prove to be an ocular irritant. This makes it an ideal choice for surfactants in gentle facial preparations such as make up removers where intimate application around the eye area is necessary. As a co-surfactant, Glycerol Cocoate can be added to formulations at a rate of 2-5% as an effective mildness additive, minimising the "stripping" effect some people feel when using soaps and detergents.

Glycerol Cocoate's most outstanding function is as a water soluble emollient. As a raw ingredient it has an oily texture, not that dissimilar to standard vegetable oils. When added to formulations it increases lubricity, leaving hair feeling conditioned and skin has a soft, cushioned feel. For soap makers, think of this ingredient as your superfatting agent, the ingredient that creates a milder, more moisturising product.

Almond Glycerides

Nonionic

Vegetable Derived

This nonionic surfactant is derived from almond triglycerides and is used as an emulsifier and mildness additive. It has similar characteristics to Glyceryl Cocoate except the Almond Glycerides has more emphasis on the anti-irritant qualities, whilst the Glyceryl Cocoate has more emphasis on the superfatting/emollience qualities. It retains many of the benefits of it's parent oil (almond) and when added to shampoos it will still contribute conditioning and glide to hair, as well as a conditioned feel to skin. It also acts as an anti-irritant but at one third the amount that is needed when using Polysorbate 20, making it more economical to formulate with. It can also be added as a foam stabiliser and in higher amounts as a thickener.

Shampoo Ultra Thick

Nonionic

Vegetable Derived

What a great product Shampoo Ultra Thick! It is a high performance, vegetable derived thickener for aqueous surfactant solutions, meaning that if your formula contains water you can use Shampoo Ultra Thick to thicken it. Incredibly effective, in most cases you only need between 0.5 - 1% to create a shampoo consistency.

As well as its ability to thicken, Shampoo Ultra Thick is also a counter-irritant (for those of you with really sensitive skin), effectively lowering the irritancy potential of the surfactant system as a whole. It also acts as a foam stabiliser, encouraging longer lasting bubbles.

Shampoo Ultra Thick comes in a solid and liquid form.

Along the way, we have introduced some other ingredients to allow you to further vary the ingredients used in these products, including:

Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate

Anionic

Vegetable Derived

This mild surfactant is suitable as a direct subsitution for SLS (Sodium Lauryl Sulfate) in Shampoo and Shower formulations. Derived from Natural Ingredients, Crodasinic is a high foaming, mild conditioning surfactant. It performs best under slightly acidic conditions - a wetting, foaming, conditioning agent. We use this in facial cleansers as well as bath and shower formulations.

PBS Base

Nonionic/Amphoteric

Vegetable Derived

This mild blend of surfactants is the one used in our Shampoo Kit. Now you can buy this, as well as all the other individual ingredients in bulk to make it even more economical for you to make your own natural, mild pH balanced Shampoo.

Sucrose Cocoate

INCI: Sucrose Cocoate

Vegetable Derived

This naturally derived Sugar Ester from Coconut Oil provides effective cleansing and make-up removing, without stripping the natural oils on the surface of the skin. Sucrose Cocoate has no known toxicity and has a long history of safe use and is free of preservatives and organic solvents. It is compatible with other classes of surfactants and is totally biodegradable.

Oliv-Esters

INCI: Olive Oil Peg-7 Esters

Nonionic

Olive Derived

This amazingly versatile ingredient is suitable in almost any product - Conditioners, Shampoo, Scrubs and Facial Cleansers, Lotions, Serums and Creams! Oliv-Esters can be used as a solubliser and also a co-emulsifier!

This natural olive ester provides extraordinary hydrating performance and mildness and exhibits excellent film-forming properties. Compatible with all skin types, including sensitive and reactive skin, Oliv-Esters offer extra nourishment and long term moisturising effects. Oliv-Esters are extremely proficient in avoiding dry and tense skin caused by over-cleansing or exfoliating

Categories: hair care organic, organic living , Education

Post a Comment

Oops!

Oops, you forgot something.

Oops!

The words you entered did not match the given text. Please try again.

Already a member? Sign In

100 Comments

Reply longchamp
8:11 AM on April 19, 2022 
I want to express thanks to you for rescuing me from this type of setting. Just after looking out throughout the world wide web and obtaining proposals that were not pleasant, I assumed my life was done. Existing minus the solutions to the issues you've fixed as a result of your good guide is a critical case, as well as the ones that might have adversely affected my entire career if I had not noticed your web site. Your natural talent and kindness in handling all the things was useful. I'm not sure what I would have done if I hadn't come across such a stuff like this. I can also at this point relish my future. Thanks for your time very much for this specialized and results-oriented help. I won't think twice to recommend your web site to any individual who wants and needs assistance about this issue.
longchamp http://www.longchampshandbags.us.org
Reply curry shoes
4:51 AM on April 18, 2022 
I must point out my admiration for your generosity giving support to people who require assistance with this important subject matter. Your personal commitment to getting the message all over has been extremely good and has frequently enabled workers just like me to achieve their pursuits. Your new insightful publication implies a great deal to me and a whole lot more to my office workers. Regards; from everyone of us.
curry shoes http://www.stephcurryshoes.com
Reply supreme clothing
1:30 AM on April 17, 2022 
I enjoy you because of all of the work on this website. My daughter really likes conducting internet research and it's really easy to understand why. A lot of people know all concerning the powerful tactic you render sensible tips and tricks on this web blog and even boost participation from others on the concern then my simple princess is truly starting to learn a lot of things. Take advantage of the rest of the new year. Your doing a brilliant job.
supreme clothing http://www.supremenewyork.us.com
Reply golden goose outlet
11:28 PM on April 15, 2022 
I simply desired to thank you so much once again. I am not sure the things I would have gone through in the absence of the entire opinions discussed by you about this field. It became a very alarming situation for me personally, but seeing a professional strategy you handled that forced me to weep for delight. I'm just grateful for the advice and then have high hopes you know what a powerful job you are always undertaking educating many others via your webpage. More than likely you've never come across all of us.
golden goose outlet http://www.goldengooseoutletstore.com
Reply moncler
9:13 PM on April 14, 2022 
I'm also writing to let you be aware of what a nice encounter my friend's child encountered using your web site. She came to understand so many details, including what it is like to possess an ideal teaching nature to have certain people with no trouble learn about several complicated subject matter. You actually surpassed visitors' expected results. Many thanks for offering these effective, safe, edifying and fun guidance on the topic to Julie.
moncler http://www.monclersoutletstore.com
Reply air jordan
8:06 PM on April 13, 2022 
I simply desired to say thanks again. I do not know the things I would've made to happen without the pointers shared by you over this subject. It absolutely was a very traumatic difficulty in my opinion, however , coming across your well-written avenue you processed the issue took me to jump over delight. Now i am happier for the advice and in addition expect you find out what a powerful job your are doing educating people today all through your website. Most probably you've never met any of us.
air jordan http://www.jordanshoes.us
Reply off-white
6:23 PM on April 12, 2022 
I not to mention my friends were reading through the great strategies from your site and so all of a sudden I got a horrible suspicion I had not thanked the blog owner for those secrets. Most of the ladies ended up consequently very interested to learn all of them and already have surely been enjoying those things. We appreciate you being well accommodating as well as for considering some wonderful things most people are really wanting to be aware of. My sincere regret for not expressing appreciation to sooner.
off-white http://www.off--white.us.com
Reply golden goose outlet
6:21 PM on April 12, 2022 
I wish to express my admiration for your kind-heartedness for folks who really need help with this one subject. Your real dedication to passing the solution across appeared to be exceedingly insightful and have truly enabled most people like me to reach their ambitions. Your useful key points can mean so much to me and somewhat more to my mates. Thanks a lot; from all of us.
golden goose outlet http://www.goldengoosesonline.com
Reply supreme clothing
6:20 PM on April 12, 2022 
Thanks for all of the work on this web site. Kim really likes going through research and it's simple to grasp why. Most people know all concerning the powerful form you make powerful tactics through your web blog and therefore increase response from visitors on the article while our own princess is without question becoming educated a great deal. Enjoy the remaining portion of the new year. Your carrying out a fantastic job.
supreme clothing http://www.supremes-clothing.com
Reply a bathing ape
5:42 PM on April 11, 2022 
I simply had to say thanks once more. I'm not certain the things I would've taken care of without the actual pointers documented by you about such subject matter. It seemed to be the distressing scenario for me, however , discovering the specialised style you processed it took me to jump for fulfillment. I'm grateful for your advice and even sincerely hope you comprehend what a great job that you are undertaking educating some other people thru a web site. Probably you have never got to know any of us.
a bathing ape http://www.bathing-ape.us
Reply supreme outlet
5:42 PM on April 11, 2022 
I have to express my thanks to you for rescuing me from this setting. Right after exploring throughout the the web and seeing ways which were not powerful, I figured my entire life was gone. Living without the strategies to the difficulties you have fixed by means of this website is a crucial case, and the kind which may have in a negative way affected my career if I had not noticed your website. Your personal talents and kindness in touching all areas was helpful. I don't know what I would've done if I had not come upon such a point like this. It's possible to at this moment look ahead to my future. Thank you so much for the professional and sensible guide. I will not be reluctant to propose your blog to anyone who needs assistance about this situation.
supreme outlet http://www.supremesoutlet.us.com
Reply lebron james shoes
5:39 PM on April 11, 2022 
My spouse and i have been absolutely fortunate when Edward could finish up his investigation through your ideas he got out of the blog. It's not at all simplistic to simply find yourself handing out things which many others might have been making money from. And we also do understand we have the writer to give thanks to for this. The main illustrations you made, the easy website menu, the relationships you give support to foster - it is mostly exceptional, and it's letting our son and the family consider that that issue is enjoyable, which is unbelievably vital. Thank you for everything!
lebron james shoes http://www.lebronjames.us.com
Reply golden goose
7:55 PM on March 30, 2022 
Thanks for all your valuable effort on this web page. Betty delights in conducting internet research and it is easy to see why. A lot of people hear all concerning the lively medium you deliver good techniques on this web blog and in addition invigorate response from some other people on the matter and my child is always discovering a lot. Take advantage of the rest of the year. You're conducting a good job.
golden goose http://www.goldengoose-outlet.us.com
Reply chrome hearts outlet
5:28 PM on March 27, 2022 
I not to mention my pals ended up looking through the excellent guidelines from the blog then all of a sudden got a horrible suspicion I had not expressed respect to the site owner for those techniques. Most of the ladies became as a consequence joyful to learn all of them and now have in actuality been having fun with these things. Thanks for getting simply helpful as well as for making a choice on certain exceptional subject matter most people are really needing to discover. Our own sincere apologies for not saying thanks to sooner.
chrome hearts outlet http://www.chromeheartstoreonline.com
Reply kyrie 6
8:45 AM on March 25, 2022 
Thank you for every one of your work on this website. Gloria really loves going through research and it's really easy to understand why. All of us learn all of the powerful medium you present powerful techniques through this web blog and even improve response from other individuals on the concern while our own princess is really understanding so much. Take advantage of the rest of the year. You're performing a good job.
kyrie 6 http://www.kyrie-6.com
Reply off white nike
11:06 PM on March 24, 2022 
I am writing to make you know what a awesome encounter my friend's girl encountered viewing your site. She learned a lot of things, including what it is like to possess an awesome giving style to have many others without difficulty fully grasp chosen impossible subject matter. You undoubtedly exceeded our own expected results. Many thanks for offering the interesting, safe, educational and as well as easy tips about this topic to Mary.
off white nike https://www.offwhitesoutlet.com
Reply supreme new york
4:55 AM on March 22, 2022 
I must get across my respect for your kind-heartedness giving support to individuals that really need assistance with in this niche. Your special commitment to getting the solution all around appears to be unbelievably advantageous and has frequently empowered folks just like me to realize their desired goals. Your new informative guidelines entails much to me and still more to my peers. Best wishes; from each one of us.
supreme new york http://www.supreme-clothings.us.com
Reply supreme hoodie
8:01 PM on March 19, 2022 
Thank you so much for providing individuals with an exceptionally pleasant possiblity to discover important secrets from this website. It really is so awesome and as well , stuffed with amusement for me and my office co-workers to visit your web site at minimum three times a week to find out the fresh guides you have. And lastly, I'm usually impressed with all the beautiful creative ideas you serve. Certain two areas on this page are essentially the most efficient we have all ever had.
supreme hoodie http://www.supremeclothings.us.com
Reply yeezy 380
10:10 AM on March 19, 2022 
I needed to write you a tiny word to help thank you very much as before for those nice suggestions you've shown in this article. It is really particularly generous of people like you in giving openly what exactly some people would have marketed as an e-book to end up making some money on their own, even more so since you could possibly have done it if you ever desired. These smart ideas likewise served to be the easy way to fully grasp many people have the identical eagerness the same as mine to know the truth a good deal more with respect to this condition. I believe there are several more enjoyable situations in the future for those who read through your website.
yeezy 380 http://www.yeezyboost380.us.com
Reply golden goose outlet
4:01 PM on March 16, 2022 
A lot of thanks for your entire effort on this site. Kim really loves doing research and it's easy to see why. My spouse and i notice all regarding the dynamic form you make powerful tips and tricks through your web site and in addition strongly encourage contribution from other people on that topic then our daughter has been becoming educated a lot of things. Take advantage of the rest of the year. You have been performing a terrific job.
golden goose outlet http://www.goldengooseoutlets.us